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Special Nature Reserve

Tivat Salina

Areas in hectares: 150
Altitude: 0-1 m
Conservation status: Special flora-fauna reserve, Emerald site under the Bern Convention
Coordinates: 42°23’36.59″N; 18°42’54.56″E


Tivat Solila is located in the Tivat Bay of Boka Kotorska, covering the area of 150 ha. One half of the Solila belongs to muddy basins with embankments of the maximum height of 15 cm, which are filled with water from the sea, and the other half comprises of narrow basins and canals with marsh vegetation. These basins are separated by the entire length from the “sea” basins with the embankment 2 m high.


Until now, 47 species of birds associated with water habitats have been registered in Tivat Solila, four of which are permanently present, approximately 35 are wintering and six are probably breeding. Waterfowl registered in the Solila are the following: Gavia stellata, Tachybaptus ruficollis, Podiceps cristatus, P. nigricollis, Phalacrocorax carbo, P. pygmeus, Egretta garzetta, E. alba, Ardea cinerea, Plegadis falcinelus, Grus grus, Phoenicopterus ruber, Pandion haliaetus, Anas penelope, A. strepera, A. platyrhynchos, A. acuta, Melanita fusca, Ralus aquaticus, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Himantopus himantopus, Charadrius alexandrinus, C. dubius, Actitis hypoleuctos, Pluvialis squatarola, P. apricaria, Vanellus vanellus, Calidris alpina, Philomachus pugnax, Gallinago gallinago, Limosa limosa, Numenius arquata, Tringa totanus, T. nebularia, T. ochropus, Larus ridibundus, L. cachinnans, Alcedo atthis. With other groups of birds, songbirds, raptors, etc., there has so far been registered 111 species in the Solila. If we consider that further research has been carried out continuously, it is expected that a significantly larger number of species appear.


Tivat Solila represents unique shallow basins and canals with vegetation which has inhabited saline habitats that are present in Montenegro only at the Ulcinj Salina. Shallow, salted water, rich with fish and muddy bottom rich with benthos are very good food for birds. System of canals in eastern part drains surrounding areas and receives water from the Široka River, coming down from slopes of the Vrmac Hill and the Kolžun River, which drains Gornji Grbalj field. Water in the canals is fresh and contains waste industry water from Grbalj. Even though it is polluted, the freshwater is a habitat for other groups of animals, primarily insects, amphibians and reptiles, important for feeding of birds. During the summer, east half of the Solila is lefts without water, due to the drying up of both inlets. And the western part, filled with the tide, dries significantly.


Fifty years ago, the reactivation of the medieval salt pans has been anticipated for in this region. Crystallisation basins, systems of canals and embankments have been built already, but the production of salt has not started. The intensive presence of hunters during the long hunting season from 15 August to 15 March, make for the Salila not to accept for a long time most of the species that are registered for this area. Protection measures that exclude hunting prohibit any activity on the Solila, and restricting the development of farms of mussels and shrimp only to the sea bay in front of the protected area, contributed to the increase in the number of wintering and migrating flocks of birds in this area.

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